Footnotes: IX. The Loss of Reality: The End of Modernism

1 My summarized history takes regard only of those aspects that effected the self-concept of the Western democracies. The political and economic development of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and the Third World are only treated in relation to the West.

2 Quoted in Szulc, 1990, p. 101.

3 If we consider these two opposite movements from the perspective of Kohut’s psychology of narcissism, then the revolt of the ‘New Left’ represents an attempt at social healing. The goal is a restoration of the idealized pole of the collective self, i.e. the long overdue realization of the models and ideals in the name of which the West fought against Nazi Germany and Japan. The ‘dropping out’ of the hippies reflects more of a defensive reaction that aims, in the realm of the individual, at maintaining the endangered feeling of self-esteem. The hippies turn away from a disappointing and sickening reality and attempt to cover its deficits by means of external stimulation such as sex, music, and travel, or through the illusion, called forth with the help of drugs, of one’s own wisdom, independence, and perfection.
4 In 1972 the U.S. and North Vietnam signed a cease-fire agreement. After the capitulation of South Vietnam in 1975 north and south were united into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

5 See Szulc, 1990, p. 360.

6 Popper, 1984, p. 128.

7 The number of unemployed rose continously in the industrial countries of the West and, according to a forecast by the OECD, should exceed the 35 Million mark by the beginning of 1994 (‘Tages-Anzeiger’ of 11.4.93).

8 Of all sciences psychoanalysis might come closest to providing such a sense through its however still vaguely outlined idea of psychic health, which Freud defines as the ability to love, to work, and to feel pleasure.

9 Lasch, 1980, p. 13.

10 The conditions for a successful healing attempt as described above also apply to the corresponding, i.e. compensatory tendencies within an artistic development.

11 I shall forego describing the institutional practice of psychotherapy, which claims officially to be an attempt at healing; its dissemination within the current ‘psycho boom’ is raising the psychic distress of our society in the public consciousness.

12 These forms of defense find their artistic equivalent especially in the art of the Post-Modern age, duscussed in the following chapter.

13 Krahmer 1974, p. 142 (transl.).

14 The name Transavanguardia internazionale proposed by the Italian art critic Achille Bonito Oliva is too closely linked with the Italian art scene and is out of place in relation to the international development.

15 Hughes, p. 376.

16 Edited by Giancarlo Politi, Milan, no. 92–93, October–November 1979, pp. 17–20.

17 According to Loredana Permesani, “Sandro Chia: la genèse de l’image,” in Art Studio, no. 7, 1987, p. 38.

18 Quoted by Perucchi-Petri in Cucchi 1988, p. 14 (transl.).

19 A number of these have been published in La Disegna, the catalogue of the exhibition of the same name at Kunsthaus Zürich 1988 (Cucchi 1988).

20 Honnef 1988, pp. 136–138.

21 Ibid., p. 108.

22 Art, no. 5 1986, p. 57 (transl.).

23 Polke, 1976.

24 Harald Szeeman, quoted in Honnef 1988, p. 78.

25 cf. Welsch 1988, pp. 46–63.

26 Ibid., p. 39.

27 Quoted in ibid., p. 35.

28 Ibid.

29 Welsch 1988, p. 6ff.

30 Kohut 1978, vol. 2, p. 801.