Footnotes: I. Introduction

1 Popper, 1986, p. 150.

2 By historicism, Popper means an approach to the social sciences which assumes that historical prediction is their principal aim, and which assumes that this aim is attainable by discovering the ‘rhythms’ or the ‘patterns’, the ‘laws’ or the ‘trends’ that underlie the evolution of history. Ibid., p. 3.

3 Ibid., pp. 151–152.

4 Haffner, 1987, pp. 14, 15 (transl.).

5 Quoted in Mondrian, 1987, p. 15.

6 Matisse, 1947, pp. 81–84 (transl.).

7 Schelling, 1856–61, quoted from Hoffmeister, 1955, p. 67 (transl.).

8 Nietzsche, 1967, p.33.

9 For a brief summary of the most important theoretical concepts of psychoanalysis,
see p. 245f. in this book.

10 Freud (1938), Standard Edition, XXIII, 1964, p. 148.

11 These relations were recognized by Freud early on and extensively discussed in several papers. The infant probably hallucinates the fulfillment of its internal needs; it betrays its unpleasure, when there is an increase of stimulus and an absence of satisfaction by the motor discharge of screaming and beating about with its arms and legs, and it then experiences the satisfaction it has hallucinated. (Freud [1911], Standard Edition, XII, 1958, p. 220, footnote).

12 In his theory of the two poles of the self, Kohut merely circumscribes the elementary structure adopted by the ego when it integrates the contents of the id or the superego. In this sense, Kohut’s theory does not contradict the Freudian concept of the ‘psychic apparatus’—despite the opinion of many analysts to the contrary—but simply presents another aspect of the same psychic factors. The two poles of the self do not represent instances but rather functional connections that arise out of their relational structure. The exhibitionist pole articulates the agreement between the ego and the id; the idealized pole between the ego and the superego.

13 Kant, 1993 (1798), pp. 416–417.

14 See Kohut, 1978, vol. 1, p. 238.
15 Art historically: At this time a group of young artists in Paris gathered around the painter Edouard Manet. In 1873 they founded the Société Anonyme des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs et Graveurs (see pp. 117ff.), which gave birth to Impressionism. Sociologically: In Paris, besieged in the winter of 1870/71, the commune marked the beginning of a new epoch. According to Haffner, for the first time issues were addressed that the entire world is struggling with today: democracy or dictatorship, a system of councilors or parliament, socialism or welfare capitalism, secularization, popular armament, even the emancipation of women—all of these issues suddenly became the order of the day. Spontaneous ur-forms thereof are found in the commune. (Haffner, 1987, p. 61, transl.).

116 Szczesny, 1974, p. 11.

17 Giacometti, 1963, n.p. (transl.).

18 Kohut, 1978, vol. 2, pp. 836–38.

19 For instance Herder, Wölfflin, Scheffler, Spengler, Toynbee, Hauser, Focillon.

20 This approach forms the exception, to which I do not wish to apply the corresponding designation of classicism for reasons that will be discussed later.