Footnotes: II. The End of the Modern Era

1 See Wells, 1975, pp. 300–302.

2 See Tenenti/Ruggiero, 1967, p. 143.

3 Richter, 1979, p. 35 (transl.). As a caveat to this thesis, we must note that not “everyone,” but only the rulers and the intellectuals, the members of the highest social classes, the high clergy and nobility, adopted such an exaggerated view of humanity. The great uneducated majority had no reason to do so, for the harshness of their living conditions served as a daily reminder of the highly terrestrial contingency of their existence.

4 See Craig, 1966, p. 70.

5 In the following, I summarize the observations of H.G. Wells, see Wells, 1975 (1926),
pp. 257–263.

6 See Wells, 1926, p. 263ff.

7 See Wells, 1926, p. 265ff.

8 In the following I summarize the observations of Wolfgang J. Mommsen in Das Zeitalter des Imperialismus, see Mommsen, 1984, pp. 10–100.

9 This ideology would find its extreme in the fascist movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

10 See Hawking, 1988, pp. 16–17.

11 See Barnett, 1955, pp. 43–45.

12 See Barnett, 1950, pp. 16–17.

13 Note that not all of these stimuli are consciously registered and processed, but only those that are sufficiently relevant to our intentions or interests.

14 Kant, 1934 (1787), p. 54.

15 No such claim could be made on behalf of Fichte, Schelling, or Hegel.

16 Schopenhauer, [1818], p. 269, translated from Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung,
Part I, § 38.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid., p. 33 (§1).

19 Ibid., p. 152 (§17).

20 Ibid., pp. 153–157 (§18).

21 Ibid., p. 165 (§ 21).

22 Ibid., pp. 168–69 (§ 23).

23 Ibid., p. 849 (Part II, §14).

24 Ibid., p. 854 (Part II, §15).

25 Freud, 1955 (1917), Standard Edition, xvii, p. 143.

26 Marx and Engels 1978 (1848), Marx-Engels Reader, p. 500.

27 Nietzsche, 1911 (1888), p. 102.

28 Nietzsche, 1909 (1883–85), pp. 9–10.

29 Nietzsche, 1911 (1888), p. 107.

30 The doctrine greatly influenced the Symbolists. At times it fascinated a few of the famous artists of Modernism, including Piet Mondrian, Wassily Kandinsky and Joseph Beuys.

31 Blavatsky, II, 1888, p. 294.

32 Ibid., 1888, p. 194.

33 Blavatsky, I, 1888, pp. 670–71.

34 Steiner, 1994, pp. 14–15.

35 Steiner, 1984, p. 128.

36 Steiner, 1986, p. 96 (transl.).

37 Ibid., p. 149 (dto).

38 He founded the method of education still practiced today at Waldorf schools, propagated a then-new way of organic farming, designed a rather simplistic political model of a society divided into the three autonomous realms of state, economy, and intellectual life, and developed his own, organic style of architecture for the building of the Goetheanum (the center of his movement in Dornach, near Basel).

35 The actual pioneers of modernism, Degas, Monet, Seurat, Cézanne, Gauguin and van Gogh, launched a far more radical break with the past. They ushered in a new artistic age. For this reason they will be discussed in the next chapter.

36 Spanish: el capricho.

37 Letter of January 4, 1794, original text in Gassier/Wilson, 1971, p. 108.

38 Letter of 7 January 1794, ibid., p. 110.

39 The exact number and type of pictures in this legendary shipment is still disputed among experts. Only three of the pictures, ascribed to this series by Gassier and Wilson (Gassier/ Wilson, 1971), match the Corral de locos in subject matter and style.They also show scenes of fear and horror: the ambush of a postal stagecoach, people panic-stricken in a blaze, and the despair caused by a shipwreck. Similar pictures in the same format are ascribed by the two authors to the years 1808–1812.

40 See Farner, 1980.

41 See Sanchez and Gallego, 1995.

42 See Schmidt, 1977, p. 80.

43 See Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, p. 636.

44 Ibid., p. 639.

45 Anna Freud, 1986, p. 174.

46 See Scheffler, 1952, p. 106f.

47 Ibid.

48 See Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, pp. 653–54.

49 Not to be confused with his grandson, Emile John Horace Vernet, a contemporary of Delacroix and known for his battle panoramas and animal paintings.

50 See Scheffler, 1952, p. 107f.

51 This displeasure was probably caused primarily by the political attitude implied in The Raft of the Medusa. Everyone assumed that the painting was an indictment of the cowardice and irresponsibility of the captain and his crew and thus, figuratively, of ministerial incompetence in general. English viewers, who were not affected by the scandal, reacted quite differently: at a private showing in London, Géricault’s masterpiece attracted 40,000 visitors. The artist earned the substantial sum of some 18,000 francs on admissions and the sale of a lithograph.

52 See Symons, 1907, p. 293.

53 Blake, Letter 27, 1982, p. 703.

54 Quoted in Hofstätter, 1965, p. 158f.

55 During the first half of the 19th century, humanity still meant people of means, the representatives of the bourgeoisie. They alone enjoyed the right to human dignity—and to the vote—while peasants, workers, and day laborers were still basically classified as subhuman beings.

56 See Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, p. 888.

57 See the essays by Robert P. Welsch (pp. 63–87) and Carol Blotkamp
(pp. 89–111) in The Spiritual in Art, 1986.

58 Quoted in Hofstätter, 1965, p. 230.

59 One of these few is Hodler, whose important late work opens avenues to pictorial authenticity.

60 Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Faust, part one, translated by Philip Wayne, Penguin Classics, 1961, p. 56.

61 Quoted in Mathieu, 1977, p. 159.

62 Huysmans, 1969 (1884), p. 53.

63 This applies to Barbey d’Aurevilly, Huysmans, Verlaine, Wilde, and Beardsley.

64 See Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, pp. 889–90.

65 In a letter to Henry de Régnier, August 1887, Verlaine, 1929, vol. 3, p. 310 (transl.).

66 Quoted in Scheffler, 1952, p. 131 (transl.).

67 See ibid., p. 130.

68 See Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, p. 774.

69 See Schneider, 1985, p. 39.

70 The exponents of that movement, with which Millet and Daumier as well as Manet and
Degas allied themselves, alternately called it Realism or Naturalism. I have chosen to use the term Realism throughout, which I consider the only fitting designation (see my discussion
pp. 401).

71 Quoted in Gage, 1974, p. 39.

72 Quoted in Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, p. 775.

73 See ibid., p. 775f.

74 The painting is now attributed to Titian.

75 See Schneider, 1985.

76 See ibid., p. 59.

77 Delacroix, 1948, p. 292.