Footnotes: III. Pictorial Reality and the Beginnings of Modernism

1 Hauser, 1951, vol. 2, p. 796.

2 See my discussion of ego values, p. 453f.

3 Schmidt, 1976, p. 64.

4 The congruence of artistic means, artistic intention, and mental attitude determines the truth, the indivisibility, and the integrity of a work. Obviously this applies not only to the stylistic achievements of Naturalism, but to all the styles of an epoch. Hence we have Constructivist or Surrealist kitsch, Pop Art kitsch, and even “naïve” kitsch.

5 These exhibitions contributed substantially to the steady democratization of the Parisian art world. Following the Société’s example, several hundred artists established an alternative to the official Salon in 1884, known as the Salon des Indépendants, which was open to any painter or sculptor willing to pay the membership dues. This Salon became the most important forum of progressive art trends and contributed decisively to the spread of new artistic impulses.

6 For the following analysis of the characteristics of the Impressionist style, see Schmidt, 1979, pp. 22–28.

7 See Schmidt, 1976, p. 81.

8 Quoted in Adhemar/Cachin, 1973.

9 For this and the following quotation, see Paul Signac, “From Eugène Delacroix to Neo-Impressionism” in: Ratliff, 1992, p. 135.

10 Denis, 1907, quoted in Cézanne, 1980, p. 90.

11 See Schmidt, 1976, p. 90f.

12 Cézanne in conversation with Gasquet, in: Gasquet, 1991, p. 148.

13 Cézanne in conversation with Bernard, in: Cézanne, 1980, p. 89.

14 In: Van Gogh, The Complete Letters, 1958, vol. 3, p. 20.

15 In: Further Letters of Vincent van Gogh to his Brother, 1886–1889, London 1929, p. 141.

16 Ibid., p. 106.

17 Gauguin, “Cahier pour Aline” in: Cachin, 1992, p. 176.

18 Letter of May 1890 in: van Gogh, The Complete Letters, 1958, vol. 3, p. 294.

19 Letter of June 1890 to his sister Willemien in: van Gogh, The Complete Letters, 1958, vol. 3,
p. 469.

20 C. July 9, 1890, in: van Gogh, The Complete Letters, 1958, vol. 3, p. 295.

21 Gauguin, 1993, p. 262.

22 Gauguin, “Diverses Choses” in: Cachin, p. 177.

23 Gauguin, 1993, in a letter to his wife of December 8, 1892, p. 180.

24 Hofstätter, 1965, p. 66.

25 Quoted in Mathieu, 1977, p. 173.

26 Quoted in Hofstätter, 1965, p. 229 (transl.).

27 In Le Figaro Littéraire of 18 Sept. 1886, ibid., p. 228 (transl.).

28 Aristotle was the first to use the Greek word catharsis (purification, atonement) in this sense, i.e. to describe the effect of tragedy on the spectator. Later (in fact, at the same time that Munch painted the corresponding pictures), Breuer and Freud returned to this word to designate the principle to which psychoanalysis owes its first therapeutic successes between 1880 and 1895. The ‘Cathartic Method’ drew on the insight that those affects which have not found a means of discharge have a pathogenic effect. The two physicians assumed that recovery would be a result of the liberation of the affect that had gone astray and of its discharge along a normal path (‘abreaction’). Freud (1926), Standard Edition, vol. xx, p. 264.

29 Eggum, 1986, p. 155.

30 Schiff, 1983, p. 30.

31 In 1884, Les Vingt showed Rodin, in 1886 Monet, in 1887 Seurat, in 1889 Gauguin, and in 1890 Cézanne and van Gogh. Ensor withdrew from the group in 1888.

32 Schiff, 1983, p. 39.

33 A process described by the psychoanalyst Ernst Kris as regression for the sake of the ego.

34 Obviously, artistic developments do not follow one track alone and each artist has exercised a multi-faceted influence on later generations. Thus, points of reference can be found between Monet and Kandinsky and Abstract Expressionism, or between Cubism and Klee. The lines of development proposed above are to be understood as diagrammatic simplifications.