Footnotes: IV. Invisible Reality and the Aesthetics of Universality

1 Parts of this chapter were originally published in the exhibition catalogue edited by the author, African Seats, 1994, pp. 15–21.

2 Quoted in Rubin, vol. 1, 1984, p. 334, note 8.

3 See Picasso’s account given to André Malraux some thirty years later (Malraux, 1987), as well as William Rubin on the making of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, ibid., p. 253f.

4 Ibid., p. 255.

5 Schmalenbach, 1988, p. 14 (transl.). Werner Schmalenbach is one of the few art historians to have thoroughly studied the aesthetics of African art. His theses form the basis of the following discussion.

6 Ibid., p. 18 (transl.).

7 See ibid., p. 25.

8 Quoted in Le Pichon, 1982, p. 253.

9 Uhde, 1949, p. 21.

10 Quoted in Le Pichon, 1982, p. 256.

11 See Olivier, 1982, p. 68.

12 I quote from a later, slightly modified version: see Uhde, 1949.

13 Ibid., pp. 25–30.

14 Quoted in Le Pichon, 1982, p. 252.

15 Apparently his mentors, to whom he showed his work for appraisal, reinforced this canon.
If I have kept my naïveté, he explains to the art critic André Dupont in 1882, it is because Monsieur Gérôme, who was a professor at the School of Fine Arts, and Monsieur Clément, director of the School of Lyon, always told me to keep it. (Quoted in ibid., p. 252.).

16 It must be noted, however, that the painters of the Trecento were in the vanguard of spiritual developments in their day, while Rousseau’s spiritual approach was rather behind the times.

17 In: Comoedia, 19 March 1910, quoted in Le Pichon, 1982, p. 85.

18 Quoted in Le Pichon, 1982, p. 142.

19 In Picasso’s case, the influence of Henri Rousseau is also noteworthy; Picasso’s very first ‘Cubist’ experiments took inspiration from the compact physicality of the douanier’s work.

20 See Apollinaire, 1982 (1913), pp. 19, 39.

21 See Georg Schmidt’s discussion on these issues, 1976, p. 171f.

22 See The Essential Cubism 1907–1920, 1983, p. 362.

23 One of the others, Fernand Léger, is discussed later.

24 See p. 59f. in the present volume.

25 Mondrian, 1951, p. 10.

26 Mondrian, 1974, quoted in Hess, 1988, p. 158 (transl.).

27 Mondrian, 1974, ibid., p. 156 (transl.).

28 Wismer, 1985, p. 44 (transl.).

29 Interestingly, Freud advances a similar view in reference to the dream. A footnote in his Interpretation of Dreams reads: I used at one time to find it extraordinarily difficult to accustom readers to the distinction between the manifest content of dreams and the latent dream-thoughts. Again and again arguments and objections would be brought up based upon some uninterpreted dream in the form in which it had been retained in the memory, and the need to interpret it would be ignored. But now that analysts at least have become reconciled to replacing the manifest dream by the meaning revealed by its interpretation, many of them have become guilty of falling into another confusion which they cling to with equal obstinacy. They seek to find the essence of dreams in their latent content and in so doing they overlook the distinction between the latent dream-thoughts and the dream-work. At bottom, dreams are nothing other than a particular form of thinking, made possible by the conditions of the state of sleep. It is the dream-work which creates the form, and it alone is the essence of dreaming—the explanation of its peculiar nature.(Freud (1900), Standard Edition, v, 1953, pp. 506–07, footnote.).

30 Mondrian, 1974, quoted in Hess, 1988, p. 160 (transl.).

31 Quoted in Leymarie, 1959, pp. 118–19 (transl.).

32 Matisse, 1973, p. 149 (transl.).

33 Ibid.

34 Kandinsky, 1982, pp. 369–70.

35 It seems that Kandinsky subsequently dated this watercolor 1910, a date that is questioned by several renowned art historians (e.g. K. Roethel, K. Lindsay, Hideho Nashida, P.A. Riedl, and others).

36 In: Kandinsky, 1982, p. 145.

37 Ibid., p. 373.

38 Ibid., p. 210.

39 Ibid., p. 394.

40 Jung, 1961, pp. 336–37.

41 In: Kandinsky, 1982, p. 370.

42 Ibid., pp. 173–75.

43 Riedl, 1983, p. 62 (transl.).

44 In: Kandinsky, 1982, p. 143.

45 Ibid., p. 370.

46 Freud (1938), Standard Edition, xxiii, pp. 148, 146.

47 This remark refers exclusively to Kandinsky’s fundamental discussion of the artistic process as such. It is not possible, in the present context, to go into his investigations of the potential pictorial effects of color and form.

48 Hahl-Koch, 1984, p. 57.

49 Gauguin, “Diverses Choses” in: Cachin, p. 177.

50 In: Kandinsky, 1982, p. 193.

51 Ibid., p. 380.

52 The Blue Rider, 1974, pp. 15–16.

53 Ibid., p. 168, p. 153

54 See p. 336f.