Footnotes: V. The New Paradigm in the World-View of the Modernist Era

1 Barnett, 1950, p. 19.

2 Barnett, 1950; Einstein, 1955; Russell, 1972; von Laue, 1974; Einstein/Infeld, 1987; Capra, 1984; Hawking, 1988.

3 From the thoughts and experiments only hinted at here, Einstein developed a series of epochal equations that earned him a Nobel prize in physics. His ‘photoelectric law’ not only decisively influenced subsequent works in quantum mechanics and spectroscopy, but also set up the theoretical foundation for the development of television.

4 Barnett, 1950, p. 30.

5 Heisenberg, 1941, p. 7.

6 In physics velocity is a vector, meaning not just the speed but also the direction of an object.

7 By a clock we understand something which provides us with a countable series of similarly repeating events.

8 Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

12 Barnett, 1950, p. 104.

13 These curves, which are immutably set in the geometric properties of the gravitation field, are described as ‘geodetic lines’.

14 Quoted in Barnett, 1950, pp. 104–105.

15 Ibid., pp. 105–106.

16 Quoted in Barnett, 1950, p. 20, cf. Capelle, 1955, p. 399.

17 Quoted in Barnett, 1950, p. 20.

18 Quoted in Barnett, 1950, p. 76.

19 Ibid., p. 78.

20 Ibid., p. 123.

21 Einstein made the attempt with his “unified field theory,” but later described it as fruitless.

22 Quoted in Barnett, 1950.

23 Fenichel, 1996 (1946), p. 254.

24 These theses took up ideas that were already in the air as diffuse thoughts around the turn of the century; the potential of these thoughts as explanations was first made clear by Freud’s far-reaching generalizations and, decisively, by his precise specification.

25 See Rapaport, 1969 (1960), p. 46.

26 Ibid., (1960), p. 48.

27 This misunderstanding was reinforced by the early Freud translations. The English-language Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works cited here also renders ‘Trieb’ as ‘instinct’, instead of the more appropriate term ‘drive’. The French translations use ‘instinct’ and ‘pulsion’ interchangeably, as do the Italian translations with ‘istinto’ and ‘pulsione’. The Spanish translation restricts itself to ‘istinto’. The German language knows both words, ‘Instinkt’ and ‘Trieb’, but psychoanalytic literature makes almost exclusive use of the latter term.

28 See Brenner, 1976, p. 27.

29 See Rapaport, 1969 (1960), p. 46.

30 Freud, Complete Works, XIV, 1957 (1915), p. 123. This and the following quotations are typical examples of ‘Trieb’ being translated as ‘instinct’ where ‘drive’ would be more appropriate. Hence the inclusion in each case of ‘drive’ in square brackets.

31 Ibid., p. 122.

32 Ibid., p. 122.

33 Freud, Standard Edition, xxii, 1964 (1938), p. 145.

34 Ibid., pp. 145–146.

35 Ibid., pp. 146–147.

36 Freud, Standard Edition, xiv, (1915), p. 181.

37 It is thoroughly conceivable that additional determinants will be added to the ones specified here.

38 In the following summary I take over Rapaport’s formulations at various stages, but shall in the interest of readability avoid separately quoting the adopted passages. The corresponding pages in Rapaport’s work are given for each section.

39 Rapaport, 1969, p. 43.

40 Ibid., p. 46.

41 Ibid., p. 49.

42 Ibid., p. 50.

43 Ibid., p. 52.

44 Ibid., p. 52.

45 Freud, Complete Works, XII, 1958 (1911), p. 219.

46 See Rapaport, 1969, pp. 57–61.

47 Ibid., p. 62.

48  As we have seen, in strict terms they can be reduced to five points of view (dynamic, economic, genetic, structural, and adaptive).

49 See Rapaport, 1969, p. 39.

50 Ibid., p. 40.

51 Knowledge of the organismic thesis according to Rapaport is all the more important because broad circles see psychoanalysis as an atomistic and mechanistic theory. If in Rapaport’s time the gestalt psychologists expounded the organismic point of view; today it is especially the adepts of “New Age philosophy” (see Capra, 1983, pp. 194–200).

52 See Rapaport, 1969, p. 42f.

53 In his “Autobiographical Study,” (“Selbstdarstellung,” 1925), Freud describes the shift that had taken place within German psychiatry by the 1920s. While they continually declare that they will never be psycho-analysts, that they do not belong to the ‘orthodox’ school or agree with its exaggerations, and in particular that they do not believe in the predominance of the sexual factor, nevertheless the majority of the younger workers take over one piece or another of analytic theory and apply it in their own fashion to the material. All the signs point to the proximity of further developments in the same direction. Freud, Standard Edition, xx, 1959 (1925), p. 61.

54 See Rapaport, 1969, p. 37.

55 The following historical summary relies over long sections on H.G. Wells, The Outline of History, 1920.

56 Harro Brack, in: Schultes, 1979, p. 217.

57 Wells, 1920, p. 733.

58 See the remarks by Harro Brack in: Schultes, 1979, pp. 218–220.

59 See Christiane Koch, 1988, p. 41f.

60 Meyer, 1989, p. 24.