Footnotes: VI. Crisis and Renewal

1 See pp. 319–321 for more on the use of the term ‘mannerism’ in connection with Mondrian and Kandinsky.

2 Sweeney, 1946, p. 21.

3 Quoted in Sanouillet, 1975, p. 179. (As in d’Harnoncourt/McShine, 1973).

4 Quoted in ibid., p. 242.

5 Quoted in Stauffer, 1973, p. 26 (transl.).

6 Janis, 1945, p. 23. (As in d’Harnoncourt/McShine, 1973).

7 Tomkins, 1966, p. 34.

8 Jouffroy, 1964, p. 111 (transl.).

9 Kuh, 1960, p. 88.

10 Sanouillet, 1975, cited from German version in Duchamp, 1983.

11 Quoted in Lebel, 1959, p. 78.

12 Duchamp, 1914–1934 (The Green Box) quoted in Sanouillet, 1975, p. 37.

13 Kuh, 1960, p. 90.

14 Quoted in Molderings, 1987, pp. 38, 41.

15 Two groups can be distinguished among these. The “pure” readymades, in which the object is left in its original state and at most changed in position or given a title, and the “assisted” readymades (readymades aidés). These are not just chosen by Duchamp, but also altered in some way, or combined with other objects. Following the Bicycle Wheel, the first assisted readymade, in 1916–17 Duchamp changes the lettering on an advertising sign for Sapolin Enamel to Apolinère enameled. In 1919 he draws a mustache and goatee on a print of the Mona Lisa and inscribes the letters L.H.O.O.Q. (pronounced as letters of the alphabet in French, this reads as “elle a chaud au cul,” literally “she has heat on the ass”) (fig. 191). In 1920 he chooses a window and covers the glass panes with black leather. In this case as well, the ambiguous title Fresh Widow (no ‘n’) is an integral part of the work.

16 Apparently he is here referring only to the “pure” readymades.

17 Interview with Hahn in AAZ, July 1966.

18 Quoted in Stauffer, 1973, p. 56.

19 Molderings, 1987, p. 63.

20 Similar considerations can be found in de Duve, 1987, pp. 34–38 and 146–149.

21 Sweeney, 1956, quoted in Stauffer, 1973, p. 71.

22 Tomkins, 1973 (1966), p. 10.

23 Quoted in Amaya, 1985.

24 Quoted in Stauffer, 1983, p. 215.

25 Roché, 1959, p. 87 (transl.).

26 Steegmüller, 1963, p. 29.

27 This phallic lighting appliance first appears, in a similar position, in a drawing from the 1950s. Many years before it served to make gaseous castings from molds of the Bachelors, the Gaz d’éclairage (Illuminating Gas) was illuminating the classroom of the boarding school attended by Duchamp in Rouen.

28 Futurism & Futurisms, 1986, p. 456.

29 Quoted by Ester Coen in Futurism & Futurisms, 1986, p. 583.

30 Quoted in Futurism & Futurisms, 1986, pp. 514, 516.

31 Quoted in ibid., p. 578.

32 In the Technical Manifesto of Painting, quoted in Futurism & Futurisms, 1986, p. 578.

33 Malevich, 1968 (1915), pp. 24, 38.

34 See the long passage by Stella on this, quoted on p. 469.

35 Malevich, 1927, quoted by Krahmer, 1974, p. 22 (transl.).

36 Hauser, 1965, pp. 24–25.

37 Ibid., p. 29.

36 See Rubin, 1984.

37 Klee, 1964, p. 125 (July 1902).

38 Klee, 1928, quoted in Geelhaar, 1982, p. 55 (transl.).

39 Klee, 1964, p. 374 (July 1917).

40 In terms of psychoanalysis, these entail primarily perceptive, cognitive and executive functions. They all aim to achieve a congruence between idea and reality, or rather, to unite them in synthesis: in successful perception, sensual sensations and the imagination of their real cause are combined in the synthesis of the real; in successful cognition, imagined and real orders and relations are combined in the synthesis of the true; in successful execution, intention and success are combined in the synthesis of the right.

41 Quoted in Rotzler, 1977, pp. 64–65 (transl.).

42 See Carlo Carrà, “Parlata su Giotto,” quoted in Realismus, 1981, pp. 71f.

43 Quoted in Diehl, 1985, p. 23 (transl.).

44 Haftmann, 1960, p. 254, see also chapter on Fernand Léger in: ibid., pp. 253–55.

45 Breton, 1969, p. 26.

46 Aragon, Une vague des rêves, 1924, quoted in Nadeau, 1968, p. 83 (transl.).

47 See Lebel/Sanouillet/Waldberg, 1987, p. 149.

48 Sweeney, 1948, p. 212.

49 Freud (1900), Standard Edition, iv, p. 103.

50 See Breton, 1969 (1924), pp. 10–14.

51 Sechehaye, 1994, pp. 21–22, 29–30, 38 (transl.).

52 In this sense, the manechino is also to be understood as a simile for an unempathetic environment that refuses narcissist confirmation.

53 Rubin, 1969, p. 211.

54 See detailed discussion in: ibid., pp. 210–13.

55 Ibid., p. 212

56 Ibid.

57 Breton, 1969 (1929), pp. 55, 56.

58 Isodore Ducasse, aka Comte de Lautréamont (1846–1870), in the prose poem ‘Les Chants de Maldoror.’

59 In Lebel/Sanouillet/Waldberg, 1987, p. 232f. (transl.).

60 Giacometti, 1963, n.p. (transl.).