Footnotes: VII. The Political Revolt Against the Modernist Idea

1 See Bocola, 1987.

2 The word fascism is rooted in the Italian term fascio (bundle). Its modern meaning can be traced back to 1915, when Mussolini founded the Fasci di Combattimento (his combat alliance) and raised the bundle of birch rods tied up with an ax into the emblem of his political movement, that of fascism.

3 See especially: Fest, 1992; Hofer, 1975; Haffner, 1988; Jäckel, 1991; Wippermann, 1983; Wollenberg, 1989; Zentner, 1988.

4 Freud (1916), G. W., X, p. 435.

5 Hitler, 1974 (1933), p. 263.

6 Quoted in Jäckel, 1991, p. 106.

7 Hitler, 1974 (1933), p. 277.

8 Ibid., p. 296.

9 Ibid., p. 60.

10 Thus for example “Aryan” is an ethnological and linguistic term; it does not describe a race but an Indo-Germanic family of languages (Medeans, Persians, Indians).

11 Stierlin, 1975; Bromberg, 1971; Langer, 1972; Smith, 1967; Brosse, 1972 et al.

12 In the following I summarize Kohut’s observations. See Kohut, 1975, pp. 116–120.

13 A more extensive description of this character type may be found on p. 525f.

14 Hitler, 1974 (1933), p. 313.

15 From a Hitler speech of 1928, quoted by Hofer, 1975, p. 37.

16 Der Völkische Beobachter, 24 April 1936.

17 Joseph Goebbels in the yearbook of the Reich chamber of film, 1937, pp. 61–85, quoted in Richard, 1982, p. 175.

18 Kohut, 1975, p. 122.

19 Hofer, 1975, p. 13.

20 See Schultes, p. 1979, p. 240.

21 From a speech by Goebbels, quoted in Hofer, 1975, p. 96.

22 Piper, in Wollenberg, 1989, p. 137.

23 Hinz, in Realism, 1981, p. 125.

24 Kauffmann, 1941, quoted in ibid.

25 Wollenberg, 1989.

26 This development and the sociohistorical effects of the so-called Cold War are discussed here at length on p. 549f.