Footnotes: VIII. Triumph and Consummation

1 On European art during the immediate postwar period, see p. 492f.

2 From an interview with Howard Putzel in Arts and Architecture, vol. 61, no. 2, February 1944, quoted in Ross, 1990, p. 138.

3 Pollock, 1947, see also Westkunst, 1981.

4 The following brief definition can be found in Hoffmeister, Philosophische Begriffe: Mysticism (from Greek ta mystika, the mysteries, in turn from Greek myein, to close the eyes) seeks to achieve inner divine inspiration in which the human being becomes aware of the unity of his nature with the world, and in which the division between subject and object is sublated. This is achieved in ecstasy (from the Greek ‘to be outside oneself’, ‘elevated above oneself’), a state of excitement in which the highest apex of life is experienced. The use of music and dance, stimulants and intoxicants can serve the achievement of ecstasy. The more noble path to mystical experience is through asceticism, contemplation and meditation. (Hoffmeister 1955).

5 From an interview with Frank O’Hara in Evergreen Review , vol. II, no. 6, 1958, quoted in Ross, p. 91.

6 Motherwell, 1976, p. 18.

7 See Rosenblum, 1973.

8 Roberta Smith, “The Great Mediator” in Cy Twombly. Paintings. Works on paper. Sculpture. Munich (Prestel) 1987, p. 16.

9 Schmidt, 1976, p. 29 (transl.).

10 Ibid., p. 35 (transl.).

11 See also chapter “The World-View of Modern Physics” of this publication,
especially pp. 229–231.

12 Crichton, 1977, p. 28.

13 Ibid., p. 41.

14 See also p. 330, note 40 and pp. 453f. of this publication.

15 Crichton, 1977, p. 31.

16 Ibid., p. 9.

17 Rauschenberg, quoted in Russell/Gablik, p. 14 .

18 Crichton, 1977, p. 32.

19 Ibid., p. 38.

20 From: Otto Hahn, “Interview with Marcel Duchamp” in: Art and Artists, vol. 1, no. 4, July 1966 (London), pp. 10–11 (translated by Andrew Rabeneck).

21 Hopps, 1965, quoted in Crichton, p. 34 .

22 Crichton, pp. 49f.

23 From a transcription of a television discussion with Alan Solomon, published in Fantazaria
no. 2, July–August 1966, Rome, 1966.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Swenson 1963, p. 26.

27 McShine 1989, quoted in Stiles & Selz, p. 340.

28 Berg 1967, quoted in Stiles & Selz, p. 340.

29 Quoted in Stiles & Selz, p. 342.

30 Rose 1970, p. 29.

31 In Pincus-Witten, 1963, p. 38, quoted in Rose, p. 37.

32 Ibid., p. 65.

33 Rose 1970 p. 91.

34 Harold Rosenberg quoted in Rose 1970 p. 91.

35 Selz 1963, p. 315, quoted in Rose 1970, p. 91.

36 Sullivan 1963, p. 86f. quoted in Rose 1970, p. 140.

37 Rose, p. 135.

38 Ibid.

39 Russell/Gablik 1969, pp. 23–34.

40 Hamilton, 1970, p. 29.

41 Statement in the catalogue of the exhibition This is Tomorrow at the Whitechapel Gallery, London, 1956, quoted in Richard Hamilton, Collected Works 1953–1982, London (Thames & Hudson), n.d.

42 The term Pop Art as it is used today was first coined by art critic Lawrence Alloway. (Alloway 1962, pp. 1085–1087).

43 In a letter to Allison and Peter Smithson dated 16 January 1957, quoted in Hughes 1991, p. 344.

44 Cited in Richard Hamilton. Paintings etc. 56–64, exhibition catalogue, Hanover Gallery, London 20 October–20 November 1964 (unpaginated).

45 Ibid.

46 Hamilton, from a lecture entitled “Art and Design” (26–28 October 1960) quoted in Stiles & Selz p. 298.

47 The culmination of this work was the first European Duchamp retrospective at the Tate Gallery in 1966, for which Hamilton created a replica of the Large Glass.

48 In 1956 he presented them at the Galerie Kramer with the title Espaces imaginaires.

49 I shall discuss the work of this artist, who occupies a special position in Nouveau Réalisme in a later chapter (pp. 483ff.).

50 In Les nouveaux réalistes, 1986, p. 39 (transl.).

51 Freud 1938, Standard Edition, XXIII, p. 146.

52 This does not appear to apply in the case of Hyperrealism, which calls for considerable technical skill. However, it is a skill of such anonymity that the work itself could as a rule be undertaken by an assistant.

53 Rotzler, Constructive Concepts, 1977, p. 240.

54 Motherwell, 1976, pp. 1718.

55 Malevich, 1927, quoted in Krahmer, 1974, p. 22 (transl.).

56 Rotzler, pp. 234–244.

57 These compositions of the 1970s, or even of the present day, cannot be compared with
Malevich’s Black Square or Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. What appeared at that time as a bold and revolutionary gesture representing an individual statement appears today as conventional and, given the altered cultural situation, has lost its former impact.

58 Rotzler, p. 246.

59 Quoted in Battcock, 1968, pp. 148–164.

60 Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” Artforum, vol. 5, no. 10, summer 1967,
pp. 79–83, quoted in Art in Theory, p. 834.

61 Brockhaus-Lexikon, 1984, vol. IX, p. 327 (transl.).

62 Bocola 1987, p. 71.

63 Theo van Doesburg, quoted in Rotzler, p. 130.

64 Max Bill, quoted in Rotzler, p. 134.

65 Rotzler, p. 134.

66 Lohse, Lines of Development, quoted in documenta vii, vol. 2, p. 441.

67 Lohse, 1984 (transl.).

68 Rotzler, p. 160.

69 Quoted in Krahmer; 1974, p. 22 (transl.).

70 His mother, Marie Raymond, exhibited alongside Dewasne and Hartung in the first exhibition of abstract art at Denise René in 1946. For eight years, her salon was the meeting place of the literary and artistic avant-garde (see Les nouveaux réalistes, 1986, p. 45). Klein’s father painted figuratively.

71 Quoted in Krahmer, 1974, p. 10 (transl.).

72 Quoted in Pierre Restany, Yves Klein: Fire at the Heart of the Void, translated by Andrea Losell, Journal of Contemporary Art Editions, 1992.

73 The Avant-Garde Exhibition. New Art in the Twentieth Century, ed. Bruce Altshuler, NY (Abrams) 1994, p. 195.

74 Michel Ragon in the periodical Cimaise, May / June 1958), quoted in Krahmer, p. 59.

75 Quoted in ibid., p. 41 (transl.).

76 Quoted in ibid., p. 96 (transl.).

77 Quoted in ibid., p. 64 (transl.).

78 Quoted in ibid., p. 99 (transl.).

79 “Reçu [Vingt] grammes d’or fin contre une zone de sensibilité picturale immatérielle.” Receipt illustrated in Yves Klein, exh. cat. Centre Pompidou; Paris 1983, p. 348.

80 Quoted in Krahmer, 1974, p.102 (transl.).

81 “I could continue to maintain a precise distance from my creation and still dominate its execution. In this way I stayed clean. I no longer dirtied myself with color, not even the tips of my fingers.” Yves Klein quoted by Thomas McEvilley in Yves Klein 1928-1962, A Retrospective, Institute for the Arts, Rice University, Houston, in association with the Arts Publisher Inc., New York 1982.

82 Ibid., p. 111.

83 Ibid., p. 138.

84 Alan Kaprow “Untitled Guidelines for Happenings” (c. 1965) excerpted from Assemblage, Environments, and Happenings, New York (Abrams) 1966, pp. 188–198 in Stiles & Selz p. 709.

85 Two weeks before the planned performance Beuys asked Maciunas whether he could take part in the festival with an Action of his own. (See the letter from Maciunas to Beuys dated 17 January 1963, quoted in Adriani, Konnertz, Thomas, 1979, p. 91.

86 Ibid., pp. 91–92.

87 On 20 July 1944 an attempt was made to assassinate Hitler. All those involved were executed.

88 Quoted in Adriani, Konnertz, Thomas 1979 p. 107.

89 Stachelhaus, p. 130.

90 Ibid., p. 134.

91 Lieberknecht 1971, quoted in Adriani, Konnertz, Thomas 1979, p. 132.

92 Stachelhaus, pp. 136–137 (for the first two paragraphs; the third paragraph is quoted in Beuys 1969 and translated here from the German).

93 There is no room in this brief outline to discuss the large installations such as the Honey Pump or the drawings and multiples.

94 Article excerpted in Stachelhaus p. 127.

 95 Stachelhaus p. 65. This repeated allegation is not supported by facts.
96 Ibid., p. 65.

97 Ibid., p. 66.

98 Ibid., p. 68.

99 Ibid., , p. 66.

100 Ibid., p. 107.

101 Ibid., p. 107.

102 Ibid., pp. 106–107.

103 All applicants for a place at the art school had to submit a portfolio of their own work for scrutiny by a board of examiners who then decided who would be admitted. In all his years on the staff Beuys never made any objection to this practice until the time of the student revolt.

104 Quoted in Stachelhaus p. 101.

105 For one hundred days during documenta v in Kassel in 1972, for example, Beuys could be found from morning to evening at his ‘Information Office for Direct Democracy by Popular Referendum’ answering questions put by the public.

106 Stachelhaus p. 106.

107 Ibid., p. 116.

108 Ibid., p. 121.

109 Quoted in Stachelhaus pp. 153–156.

110 In conversation with Hanno Reuther for WDR radio, 1969.

111 Beuys, 1969, p. 134 (transl.).

112 Ibid. (transl.).

113 From a conversation with Ernst Günter Engelhard, quoted in Beuys, 1969, p. 34 (transl.).

114 “The primary thing here was the idea of the battery. These felt piles […] are aggregates, and the copper sheet is the conductor. And so, to me, the capacity of the felt to store energy and warmth creates a kind of power plant, a static action.” Quoted in Stachelhaus, p. 157.

115 From an article by Dorothea Christ, published in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung on 4 May 1970.

116 Beuys, 1969, p. 3.

117 Quoted in Stachelhaus, p. 84.

118 Ibid., p. 73.

119 Eliade, 1972 (1964).

120 Lévi-Strauss pp. 167–185.

121 Processes of healing in which the shaman or the medicine man presents or spits out the cause of the illness—an insect, a small stone, a thorn, a worm or such like—have been noted by many researchers and in a number of different tribes living far apart (including Bogaras, de Angulo, Métraux, Park, all of whom are quoted by Eliade). The fact that some of the members of the tribe see through the shaman’s trick does not appear to lessen faith in his capabilities. Jaime de Angulo, for instance, reports of an Achomawi Indian telling him, “I don’t believe those things come out of the sick man’s body. The shaman always has them in his mouth before he starts the treatment. But he draws the sickness into them, he uses them to catch the poison. How could he catch it otherwise?” (Eliade p. 307).

122 Lévi-Strauss, p. 181. ‘Pathological thought’ may also be described as magical thinking.

123 Lévi-Strauss pp. 186–205.

124 Ibid. pp. 197–198.

125 Quoted by Eliade, p. 299.

126 See Kohut 1978, vol. 2, pp. 826–832.

127 In the Catholic cult the ashes or bones of saints and objects used by them or with which their remains have come into contact (such as the shroud of Christ) are described as relics. According to the Church, relics may be revered only if they have been declared authentic in a document issued by a cleric authorized to do so. This authentication is supplied by Beuys with his signature.

128 Stachelhaus p. 22.

129 Alexander and Margarete Mitscherlich, The Inability to Mourn, translated by Beverley R. Placzek, New York (Grove Press) 1975.

130 Mitscherlich 1975, pp. 15–16.

131 Ibid., pp. 19–20.

132 Ibid., pp. 20–21.

133 Ibid., p. 26.

134 Ibid., p. 28.

135 A study published in German in 1996 now addresses this issue: Frank Gieseke and Albert Market, Flieger, Filz und Vaterland. Eine erweiterte Beuys Biographie.

136 Stachelhaus p. 19.

137 Mitscherlich 1975, p. 52.

138 Stachelhaus p. 48.

139 Quoted in Adriani, Konnertz, Thomas, pp. 64–65.

140 Ibid. p. 79.

141 This archetypal act is part of the classical repertoire of the shaman and is described several times by Eliade.

142 A similar ‘reversal to the opposite’ was accomplished by Ignatius de Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order, whom Beuys admired greatly.

143 Hitler was born in Braunau and painted postcards in Vienna.

144 Thomas McEvilley, Beuys exh. cat. Berlin 1988 (transl.).

145 The ink blot test developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach is a projective test in which the subject is invited to describe what he or she can see into a series of ten panels featuring symmetrical ink-blots created by folding a sheet of paper with a blot of ink on it while the ink is still wet. The interpretation of the resulting shapes or figures is analyzed and taken as an indication of the individual’s personality structure and fantasy life.

146 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Maximen und Reflexionen, excerpted in Art in Theory 1815–1900, p. 76, in a translation by Nicholas Walker from the ‘Hamburger Ausgabe’ of Goethe’s works, vol. XII, Hamburg (Wegner) 1953, pp. 467–93.

147 See Hoffmeister, 1955.

148 Henri Matisse in conversation with Georges Charbonnier, 1951, in Matisse on Art, ed. by Jack D. Flam, Oxford 1990 (1973).

149 Jean Moréas, “Symbolism—a Manifesto,” originally published in the Supplement littéraire du Figaro on 18 September 1886; excerpted in Art in Theory 1815-1900, p. 1015 (translation by Akane Kawakami). See also my observations on 19th century Symbolism in the present publication, p. 96f.

150 See “Land Art” in: A Visual Dictionary of Art, eds. William Heinemann Ltd/Secker & Warburg Ltd. 1974.